Before it may be published by a scientific publisher, a presented publication must first be reviewed. This can be done by members of the editorial committee themselves or by specialized fellow researchers.
The editorial members must be experts themselves in that specific scientific domain to be able to carry out a reliable assessment of the presented publication.
Peer assessment or peer review
Some editorial committees systematically call upon the assistance of fellow scientists who are specialized in that specific discipline. That external assessment is referred to as peer review. The more prominent the journal, the more strict the peer review. The colleagues performing the review often remain anonymous.